Pulmonary Embolism Pregnancy
A comprehensive overview of pulmonary embolism covering subjects as: treatment, symptoms, diagnostics, research, causes, pictures and images
Pulmonary embolism pregnancy
During pregnancy, all clotting factors are increased, except factors XI and XIII, and antithrombin III, a major inhibitor of coagulation, is low. Pulmonary embolism pregnancy occurs in about 1 of 750 cases of pregnancies. Due to the immediate need to prevent embolism and other long-term complications of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), the latter is important to be recognized. DVT can occur during pregnancy due to iliac vein compression by the enlarged uterus and, equally, due to changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis systems that favor thrombosis.
DVT also occurs in postpartum period. Pletismography impedance and Doppler ultrasound techniques are un-radio-logical, non-invasive, useful documentation of DVT. When suspected pulmonary embolism pregnancy, lung perfusion scanning can be achieved with smaller amounts of isotopes, and pulmonary angiography can be performed if the stomach is protected. Despite the potential hazard than that entailed by the latter technique, it is extremely important to diagnose pulmonary embolism when the woman is pregnant.
Pulmonary embolism pregnancy treatment
Anticoagulant therapy is indicated in pregnant women with DVT to prevent pulmonary embolism. Heparin, which crosses the placenta and therefore does not cause fetal complications, can be administered by continuous injection at a dose of 1000 units per hour until the early period of labor. Then can be used to neutralize the effects of protamine and heparin can be restarted at 2 h after the birth and continue for 3-4 days, then subcutaneous heparin or oral treatment with warfarin may be imposed for six months. When venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurs early in postpartum, treatment with heparin should be set for 7 to 10 days, followed by warfarin for approximate 3 months.
The information that I think it should be mentioned is the general risk of developing venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in case of treatment with oral contraceptives, which is 15-25 in 100,000 women following treatment. Risk decreases with the duration of treatment, a maximum in the first three months. As a comparison, the risk of thrombosis during pregnancy is somewhere in the hundreds (200-300) of 100,000 women, so much higher than treatment with oral contraceptives.
Intrauterine devices and only treatment with progesterone (not estrogen) does not influence the risk of venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism pregnancy.
For some women during pregnancy is not recommended for sports, are those with thrombophlebitis, recently pulmonary embolism, those with heart disease and pregnancy "of high risk". Depending on the disease history, your doctor may decide.
Multiple pregnancy increases the risk both for the mother and product design to develop problems during pregnancy.
With each additional fetus it raises the risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, premature detachment of the placenta, placenta inserted below, urinary tract infections, anemia, birth by cesarean, pulmonary embolism (sudden occlusion of blood vessels pulmonary emboli: thrombi, amniotic fluid, etc..) and high postpartum hemorrhage.
Thromboembolism is important because it represents one of the three main causes of maternal death (except for eclampsia and bleeding). Thromboembolism risk is increased six times in pregnancy and is known for an overall incidence of 0.3-l 6% of which 20-50% occurs ante-natal. It is more common in older women with prolonged bed rest, and after cesarean. Women with lupics antibodies risks thrombosis pressure and venous (veins may occur in irregular, for example, portal vein, upper limb veins).
Small emboli may cause pulmonary embolism unexplained fever, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath. Pleurisy should be considered only in the absence of pulmonary embolism secondary high fever and purulent sputum abundant. Embolism is also manifested by the collapse of chest pain, dyspnea and cyanosis. PVJ growth can occur after the third heart sound and breath.